Human Development Index HDI


What is the Human Development Index?

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a measurement parameter of human development in any country, it shows any country's average achievements in these three primary elements of human improvement. i.e Health, Education, and Standard of living

Health: Measured by life expectancy at birth.

Education: Measured by average years of schooling for teens aged 25 years and expected years of schooling for children entering school.

Standard of living: Measured by gross national income (GNI) per capita, capacity of purchasing power parity (PPP).

The HDI is used by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in its Human Development Report to rank countries primarily based on their measurement of human improvement.

 It is a way to gauge progress in human development over the years and to compare the improvement ranges of different countries.

How human development index calculated?

The Human Development Index (HDI) is calculated using the following steps:

Life Expectancy Index (LEI):

Life Expectancy Index (LEI): (LE – 20) / (85-20) = (LE-20) / 65

LE = Life expectancy at birth

LEI = 1 when life expectancy at birth is 85 years.

LEI = 0 when life expectancy at birth is 20 years.

As we assume the normal life expectancy is between 20 and 85 years.

Education Index (EI):

Calculate the EI as the geometric mean of two indices:

Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI): (MYSI+EYSI) / 2

Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI)=MYS/15

15 years is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.

Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI)=EYS/18

As we assume, 18 years is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in any country

Income Index (II):

(GNIpc-log100)/($4400-log10)=(GNIpc – log100)/440

Normalizing GNI per capita between $100 and $4400.

The income Index is 1 when the GNI per capita is $4400 and 0 when the GNI per capita is $100.

Human Development Index (HDI): Calculate the HDI as the geometric mean of the LEI, EI, and II, i.e. (sqrt[3] times{LEI} {EI}{II}}).

The HDI ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 represents the lowest human development and 1 represents the highest.

LE: Life expectancy at birth

MYS: Means years of schooling (i.e. person 25 years or older spent in education)

EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling of children under 18 years of age, incl. young men and women aged 13–17)

GNIpc: Gross national income of citizens purchasing power parity per capita income

The top 10 countries have a high Human Development Index (HDI)

As of the latest data, the top ten countries with the highest Human Development Index (HDI) are:

1. Norway

2. Switzerland

3. Iceland

4. Hong Kong, China (SAR)

5. Germany

6. Sweden

7. Australia

8. Netherlands

9. Denmark

10. Finland

Why do These countries have high HDI scores?

These countries have high HDI scores due to several factors:

Education: They have well-developed education systems with high-quality education.

Healthcare: These countries have strong healthcare systems that provide access to quality healthcare services for their citizens.

Income: They have high per capita income, which helps to a higher standard of living.

Gender Equality: These countries have comparatively lower gender gaps in education and employment.

Infrastructure: They have well-developed infrastructure, which includes transportation, communication, and energy systems.

Political Stability: Political stability and good governance are also very important factors for good HDI scores.

Overall, these countries have made significant investments in human development, resulting in high HDI scores and a high quality of life for their citizens.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) :

What is the HDI in India?

India's Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.645, ranking 130th out of 189 countries in 2024.

Which state has the highest HDI in India?

 Kerala has the highest HDI among Indian states, with a score of 0.779. Kerala's high HDI is focused on education, healthcare, and social development.

Why is India's HDI so low?

 India's HDI is affected by factors such as per capita income, poverty, inadequate healthcare, and education facilities.

Which country has the highest Human Development Index?

 Norway has the highest Human Development Index (HDI) in the world, for its high levels of education, healthcare, and income.

Which state is the richest in India?

Maharashtra is considered the richest state in India in terms of GDP. Mumbai is the financial capital of India and contributes significantly to the state's economy.

Which country has the lowest HDI rank?

Niger has the lowest HDI rank in the world, for its challenges in health, education, and income.

Why is India's HDI growing?

 India's HDI growth is due to improvements in education, healthcare, and standard of living.

Who introduced HDI in India?

The Human Development Index (HDI) was introduced by Indian economist Amartya Sen.

Who is ranked 1 in the HDI?

Norway is ranked 1 in the HDI, reflecting its high level of human development.